Category Archives: Hobbies

Building 4 Star 60 Day 38: Rudder & Elevator Push Rods

Rudder & Elevator Push Rods Installed at Servos

Tuesday was another 2hr building session, which is about my typical.  When you look at what I got done to the uninitiated you may think to yourself “It took you that long to do what?”.  In order to install the rudder and elevator push rods correctly it takes time.

The first step is to figure out where the control horns need to be attached to the control surface (rudder & elevator).  This is done by using a combination of the plans, to get a general idea where the horn needs to go as it’ll show where the support for it resides, and attaching the push rod to the servo to see where it lines up.   The second allows you to determine the angle at which the control horn needs to be fastened to line up with the end of the push rod.  As seen in the picture at the top I already have a hook in the push rod, which is attached to the servo arm.

Ensure that when you are installing the control horn and push rod the servo and control surface is in the neutral position.

Once this is determined you drill two holes through the control surface to act as the guides for the screws using a hand push drill, not electric, with a tiny bit.  In my case it is two holes kitty corner to each other on the base of the control horn for fastening.  When drilling you need to ensure you are going perpendicular to the surface and straight through, not at an angle, so take your time as it will pay off!  I made this mistake and didn’t get it right so when placing the screws the opening on the back wasn’t lining up with the holes in the back plate causing issues.  Thank-you John for the help correcting this and getting me on the straight and narrow for the elevator!

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Building 4 Star 60 Day 37: Covering, Fuel Tank and Rudder Hinged

Cockpit Painted

On Saturday I got to work on my plane again and made some more progress on covering and installation of the fuel tank.  One of the discussion Peter & I had in a previous session was what I’d like to do with the cockpit, use covering or paint it.  I decided to go with painting it as I felt under the heat of summer with no airflow under the canopy that covering would wrinkle and be a waste, so Peter stained the cockpit green, seen at the top.

I continued where I left off last session by completing the covering of the fin in white.  I was able to utilize the knowledge I learned from John in my last session about covering.  I was impressed with the result.  I didn’t quite get it right the first time so had to switch around the covering and start again (as the glue along the one edge was no longer good after pulling up the heated covering).  Throughout the process I had to make some incisions at the top and bottom to allow the covering to come around properly, which includes removing excess when I could.

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Building 4 Star 60 Day 36: Tail Covered

Top of stabilizer covered

Tuesday was an excellent covering session and nice to get in back to back days working on my plane.  Covering is definitely a time consuming task and the tail with all its intricacies took a lot of concentration and patience.  Throughout the process I learned how to do things better, namely so that I do not get the wrinkles when rounding corners causing a jagged/rough looking edge with wrinkles in the fabric.

I started with covering the bottom of the stabilizer in orange and the top yellow to match the colour scheme of the wing (picture below and above, respectively).  Measuring the surface at its widest point and longest point to cut a piece at those dimensions plus three inches to have play and room to grab.  For each piece the process I went through was (see bottom of article for better approach):

  • Woodpecker the surface
  • Line the piece up at the fuselage
  • Tack it down starting at the centre and working my way out
  • Start up by the fuselage and apply heat from trailing edge to leading edge (width of iron)
  • Repeat moving down the stabilizer
  • Ensure all edges are fully ironed down
  • Cut excess from trailing edge and tip
  • Fold leading edge (as have excess) around the entire edge, pull tight & iron it down
    • This is where the wrinkles really come in!
  • Trim excess from trailing edge
    • Doesn’t necessarily look pretty as the wrinkles cause the blade to catch preventing a clean line and instead you get a jagged rough line
  • Do your best to iron out all them wrinkles

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Building 4 Star 60 Day 35: Tail Covering Started

Fin-Stabilizer Transition Covered

Being Family Day in Ontario I got over for an afternoon building session with Peter.  I started off where I left off, the rudder.  I used the heat gun to shrink the covering over the ‘holes’ in the rudder and then using the markings on the fin figured out where the hinge marks were hiding under the covering that was over the leading edge.  I then used the back tip of an x-acto knife to open up the hinge slots, hard to see below 🙂

Rudder Hinge Slots Exposed
Rudder Hinge Slots Exposed

After that was finished up brought the fuselage up onto the workbench as I’m now on to covering the fuselage!  As you’ll notice from the pictures I am doing the fuselage and fin white.  Because you want your seems to be such that the covering is overlapping from front to back, prevents the air from getting under and peeling back the covering, we start at the table and work our way towards the nose of the aircraft.

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Building 4 Star 60 Day 34: Covering Rudder + Hole Made

Started Rudder Covering

It was great to get back working on my aircraft after a 16 day hiatus due to being away for birthday weekends amongst other things.  Though I wasn’t able to make it Peter did tinker a bit as he got the engine mounted, fuel tank set up and the throttle connections hooked up.  I forgot to take some pictures of that.

After checking things out and refreshing myself with the project I got to work with measuring out where a hole needed to be placed in the fuselage doubler that lines up with the high speed adjustment on the engine.  Once I determined where the hole needed to be I drilled a small hole first to ensure I wasn’t to far off and then used a bigger drill bit to open up the hole more.  Testing with the same type of wire that will eventually be attached in place the hole alignment sufficed for now.  This will allow us to find the hole after covering the fuselage and not have to mark up the fresh covering we put on to measure it out.  At some point once the wire is attached we’ll run the engine to make sure the hole is positioned well enough such that the wire can move freely within the hole with the engine vibrations.

High Speed Adjustment Hole Made
High Speed Adjustment Hole Made

John stopped by for a visit to watch me work, lol.  He seems to quite enjoy this; however, I do to as tend to pick up some tidbits along the way 🙂 .  We need to remember to create another hole for a wire to adjust the low speed.

The other task for the evening, which took the majority of the approximately 2 hrs I was there is covering the rudder, seen in the featured image above.  This started with covering the top and bottom edges followed by the trailing edge.  These pieces took quite a bit of time to get done, especially along the bottom where the tail wheel wire and mount (rubber piece) are.  To cover the remainder I used one solid piece that I sealed to the leading edge and then folded over to cover both sides of the rudder and ironed down all of the surfaces and will need to go back and finish up with the blow drier to tighten up the covering over the exposed holes in the rudder.

I probably could have just summed that up to be that covering the rudder in general due to its intricacies was awkward and required a fair bit of concentration and patience 🙂

Building 4 Star 60 Day 33: Tail Wheel & Invasion Stripes

Invasion Stripes Added

Last Tuesday I got to work on my plane again and been so busy since I’m only now getting around to blogging about it.

The first thing we did was install the wire for the tail wheel.  This involved first bending the tip of the wire into a 90 degree angle and ‘sanding’ the wire to rough it up a bit which allows the glue to stick better to hold the wire into place.  Then needed to drill a hole into the button of the rudder for where the end of the wire (the part bent up at an angle) will slide into.  This provides a sturdier fit into the rudder, since this wire steers the tail through the wheel/rudder connection.

The remaining part of the wire that goes along the bottom of the rudder needs to be recessed into the rudder itself so that it is flush.  In order to accomplish this I first lined up the wire and traced two guide lines along the bottom.  Using the guide lines I drilled tiny wholes along its length to carve out a groove.   I then alternated between using a drill bit to run along its length a tiny file to sand out the inside.  I alternated and repeated until upon one of my checks the wire sat down into the rudder to my satisfaction.  Note that we used the plans to figure out how far back the wire needed to go and also need to ensure that not to much sticks out at the leading edge that would interfere with rudder movement.

Once that was done and glued into place we then cut a piece out of a fiberglass sheet such that it would wrap around about 2 inches on each side.  I then brushed glue over the fiber glass, ensuring to role any air pockets out of the fiberglass over the wire and down the sides.  Once this was done it was left to dry.

The fiberglass provides additional support / reinforcement to the tail wheel assembly.

Tail Wheel Wire Installed
Tail Wheel Wire Installed

Next I went back to working on the wing and installed the invasion stripes on the bottom of each wing panel, seen in the feature picture at the top.  Placing covering over top of covering can lead to an excessive amount of air bubbles forming as air gets trapped between the two layers.  In order to help mitigate this issue I used the Top Flite Woodpecker Perforating Tool:

Top Flite Woodpecker Perforating Tool
Top Flite Woodpecker Perforating Tool

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Building 4 Star 60 Day 32: Hinged Ailerons + Tail Touch Ups

L Hatch Cover Installed

Saturday I got over to Peter’s for another building session.  We started by going over what Peter had done.  In order to not ‘waste’ my time on some of the easy but tedious stuff Peter will do some of it for me when he has a chance so that those things don’t hold us up in the project.  He then goes over how he did it so that I still gain some exposure to the task.

One of those things was attaching the hatch covers to the bottom of the wing, seen at the top and bottom of this post, and the other was running the leads from the servos out the two wholes in the top of the wing.  He used the previously run string to pull the wires through, since covering is now applied.  By tying the string around one end of the wire (ensuring you go along the connector and between two of the wires so the string doesn’t slip off while being pulled).  You then slowly pull the string through, working the string and lead back and forth if it catches, until you are up and through the hole.  Repeat for the other servo.

You can then connect the leads to a receiver to test the servos with your transmitter.

Testing Servos in Ailerons
Testing Servos in Wing

Hinging 101

Hinges are used to connect control surfaces (i.e. ailerons, rudder, elevator) to a main part of the aircraft (i.e wing, fin, stabilizer).  How I learned to do this is as follows and I will be using the context of installing the ailerons.

First I use a motorized hinge slotting tool (i.e. Great Planes Slot Machine, Fig. 1) to make the hinge slots into the trailing edge of the plane and ailerons.  This was done, and matched up, prior to covering.  Then once covered you can use the back of a scalpel to gently poke around about where the hinge slots should be.  Once you’ve poked through and found the slot you cut along its length exposing the slot.

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Building 4 Star 60 Day 31: Ailerons & Servo Hatches Covered

Ailerons Covered

Tuesday I was able to get in some more covering and visiting.  I started by covering the ailerons, which as you can see from the pic above I did in green.  Kevin stopped by for a visit to see how things were going and a bit of a chat.  It is nice to see guys interested in what’s going on and my progress, even if it is a bit nerve racking at times but we all need to start somewhere, lol.

I also covered the servo hatch covers, seen below.  Which was done the same colour as the bottom of the wing so that they match and blends into the rest of the wing.

In order to more easily cover the hatch covers I detached the servos.  The overall covering was pretty straight forward though a little awkward due to the small surface area.  John taught me the proper way to cut the covering away from the opening where the servo arm goes through.  Because you want to have covering over the edges of the opening to protect the wood you cut down the centre of the opening (length wise) and then two cuts into the ‘corners’ of the rounded ends.  From there you fold the covering pieces over and iron it down to the edge and back side of the cover.

Hatch Covers Covered
Servo Hatch Covers Covered

An ‘oopsie’ was discovered in this process where one of the blocks wasn’t glued to the hatch cover and thus fell off.  Good thing this was discovered now, by John, so it could be glued and clamped so that it is properly attached.

Building 4 Star 60 Day 30: Left/Center Top Wing Covered + Ailerons

Saturday was another great building session.  John stopped by for a visit to check out how things were coming along and contrary to the ‘hack’ job he voices I believe he thinks I’m doing a pretty decent job :).

Thanks to Peter for trimming off the excess of the top left covering I didn’t have a chance to finish last time as well as along the leading edge and sealing that down.  Both Peter & I learned something new yesterday from John, which is how to cut a pretty straight/clean edge.  After covering the top of the left panel, sealed all around the edges and using the blow drier to shrink of the center need to fold some over the leading edge to prevent wind from getting under and peeling it off.

Once adhered the time came for the trim trick demonstrated by John.  Depending on where you want the line you allow the side of the blade to rest against the ‘natural’ curve at the desired angle and follow it along the length of the wing while you are making your cut.  Ideally you want to do the entire cut from the same position as changing position can alter the cut reducing the visual straightness (for lack of a better word) of the line.   This also ensure that it is cut to the same length throughout. Once cut you then use the iron to roll over the top of the leading edge onto what remains after the cut to adhere to to the wing.

The last part was cutting a piece for the center of the wing.  Had to mark the wholes for the dowels, which I then cut out, and once fitting the covering over with the dowels through marked the two square wholes where the cables will come out.  I then applied the covering to the sheeting on the wing keeping the iron level (sides to the bottom/top) and working from the center out to the left, followed by center out to the right and vise versa.   Always want to start in the center so you work any air bubbles, wrinkles or other imperfections out to the edge in hopes they disappear :).  Once done I found the two square holes, generally marked via the string previously pulled through the marking wholes.  I made sure the covering was adhered firmly around the edge prior to cutting out the covering to expose the holes.  We still have the string coming out, don’t want to loose it, as the string will act as our guide when running the wires for the servo in each wing panel.

I did my best to line up the bottom edge of the L panel yellow covering to look similar to the R as well as the center to be lined up with the L & R wing panel.

To wind up the evening you can see I started covering the ailerons, just the tips so far, which will be done fully in green.  Before starting that next time I am going to go over the wing to make sure it’s done as best I can get it.

The aircraft is really starting to come together and will be starting to cover the tail soon and working on the fuselage.  As a fun aside I need to find my pilot, which can be about 2-2.5″ tall with a fairly wide base as will want to glue and screw into place.

Top Left Wing Panel and Aileron Tips Covered
Top Left Wing Panel and Aileron Tips Covered

Building 4 Star 60 Day 29: Wing Servo Hatches Exposed + Top Covering

Top Right Wing Panel

Tuesday I was able to work on my plane for a couple hours.

Prior to covering the top of the wing I needed to cut the covering that was over the servo hatches.  After cutting the covering into an ‘X’, corner to corner, I turned the wing back around and ensured that the covering is firmly adhered around the opening.  I then folded the cut pieces over, one per side, and performing little cuts where necessary to get the desired fold.   Then using a tiny iron I adhered the covering to the side of the wood before flipping over and adhering the leftovers to the inside wood (provides better attachment then cutting the excess short) and then only trimming where little bits stuck up higher than the ‘height’ of the wing so as not to affect when covering the top.

This can be seen in the image below:

Servo Hatch Holes Cut
Servo Hatch Holes Cut

Once that was done I covered the top of one half of the wing (seen in the featured image at the top).  I ran out of time as I was getting tired and hungry so I will have to perform the finishing touches next time prior to starting the other wing panel.  The touch ups include making sure there are no sagging parts, trimming the excess along the edges, etc.

As a note, this time prior to even starting to cover the top I used the woodpecker over the entire exposed sheeting where the two wing panels are connected.